In conducting research for this 2008 project, I visited the following Libraries, Archives, and Research Centers:

The Archdiocese of Chicago’s Joseph Cardinal Bernardin Archives and Records Center
The Chicago History Museum Research Center
The Chicago Park District Engineering Collections Active Vault
The Chicago Park District Special Collections Archive
The Chicago Title and Trust Company Archives
The Graceland Cemetery Archive
The Harold Washington Library Center
The Illinois Regional Archives Depository at Northeastern Illinois University
The Newberry Library
The Northwestern University libraries, including the Charles Deering McCormick Library of Special Collections, the Galter Health Sciences Library of the Feinberg School of Medicine, and the Pritzker Legal Research Center of the Northwestern University Law School.

I was able to compile the history of the cemeteries on the Chicago lakeshore, and to reveal hidden truths about Ira Couch and David Kennison, largely through the following primary sources, located on the Internet and within the abovementioned research centers:

Ante-Fire and Post-Fire Chicago Land Tract Records, Chicago Title and Trust Company.
Chicago Board of Public Works Annual Reports, 1862-1874.
Chicago City Directory, 1843, 1855
Chicago Park District’s records of City Cemetery disinterments
Chicago Park District’s records of City Cemetery title exchanges
Graceland Cemetery Interment Books, 1860-1887
Chicago Common Council Files:
-- Acts and Ordinances related to the City Cemetery and Lincoln Park
-- City Cemetery Interment Records
-- City Sexton Receipts for Burial Lots: 1843-1859
-- City Sexton Communications to the Common Council
-- City Sexton Invoices
-- Chicago Physicians’ Reports
-- Chicago Undertaker Reports
-- Chicago Citizen Petitions to Improve the City Cemetery
-- Chicago Citizen Petitions to Remove the City Cemetery
-- City and Jewish Cemetery Land Survey Records
-- Communications from City Cemetery Lot Owners
-- Watercolor Rendering and Specifications for the Mile-Long Cemetery Fence
Chicago Mayor Inaugural Speeches
Lincoln Park Commissioners’ Proceedings Minutes
United States Superior and Supreme Court documents related to the Milliman Tract, 1866.
Historical Newspapers: Chicago Democrat, Chicago Journal, Chicago News, Chicago Record Herald, Chicago Tribune, New York Times
Rauch, John H., Intramural Interments in Populous Cities and their Influence upon Health and Epidemics. Chicago: Tribune Company, 1866.

Allan Pinkerton correspondence to the Common Council
Chicago Common Council Files
Chicago Mayor Inaugural Speeches
Chicago Medical Examiner Journal
Chicago Daily Tribune
Lincoln Park Commissioners Proceedings Minutes

Chicago Common Council Files
Chicago Park District’s records of City Cemetery disinterments
Chicago Park District’s records of City Cemetery title exchanges
Chicago Park District vintage photographs
Graceland Cemetery Interment Books, 1860-1887
Lincoln Park Commissioners Proceedings Minutes, 1869-1916.
Lincoln Park Commissioners Reports, 1878–1886.
Workers Progress Administration aerial photographs
Lincoln Park topographic/water/sewer/electric maps (see Maps and Plans, below)

Ante-Fire and Post-Fire Chicago Land Tract Records, Chicago Title and Trust Company.
Lincoln Park Commissioners’ Proceedings Minutes
Sanborn Insurance Maps: 1906, 1927, 1935
Chiniquy, Charles. Fifty Years in the Church of Rome. New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1886.
Pinkerton, Allan. Criminal Reminiscences and Detective Sketches, New York: G.W. Dillington Co.,1878.
Newspapers: Chicago Tribune, Chicago Sun-Times, New York Times

United States Supreme Court documents related to Ira Couch: Potter v. Couch, 141 U.S. 296 (1891)
Lincoln Park Commissioners’ Proceedings
Chicago Park District vintage photographs
Chicago Park District topographical map - 1975

Overton, Albert G. David Kennison and the Chicago Sting. manuscript, Chicago History Museum, 1973.
The Lincoln Park Commissioners’ Proceedings Minutes
Clippings Files, Chicago History Museum.
Clippings Files, Chicago Park District Special Collections Archive.
Newspapers Stories related to Kennison in Clippings Files: Chicago Daily Tribune, Chicago Chronicle, Chicago Daily Democrat, Chicago Daily Journal, Chicago Daily News, Chicago Daily Tribune, Chicago Evening Post, Chicago News, Chicago Post, Chicago Record Herald, Chicago Sun-Times, Chicago Weekly Democrat, New York Evangelist, New York Times, Inter Ocean, The Youth’s Companion
Lossing, Benson J. Pictorial Fieldbook of the Revolution. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851.



Andreas, Alfred Theodore. History of Chicago. From the Earliest Period to the Present Time. 3 vols. Chicago: A.T. Andreas Co., 1884-1888.

Angle, Paul M. Prairie State: Impressions of Illinois, 1673-1967, by Travelers and Other Observers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.

Armstrong, John. A Paper on Monuments. Oxford: John Henry Parker, 1844.

Baker, Frank Collins. The Life of the Pleistocene or Glacial Period. New York: AMS Press, 1920.

Barrows, John Henry, Ed., The World’s Parliament of Relligions, Volume 1, Chicago: The Parliament Publishing House, 1893.

Bennett, Fremont O. Politics and Politicians of Chicago, Cook County, and Illinois, Memorial Volume, 1787-1887. Chicago: Blakely, 1886.

Blanchard, Rufus. Discovery and Conquests of the North-West, with the History of Chicago. Wheaton, Illinois: 1881.

Bliss, Harry A. Memorial Art, Ancient and Modern. Buffalo, NY: Harry A. Bliss, 1912.

Bridge, Norman. The Marching Years. New York: Duffield & Co., 1920.

Bryan, I. J. Report of the Commissioners and a History of Lincoln Park. Chicago: Lincoln Park Commissioners, 1899.

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III. Published 1908. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Chadwick, Edwin. Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain, A Supplementary Report on the Results of a Special Inquiry into the Practice of Interment in Towns. London: W. Clowes & Sons, 1843.

Chamberlin, Everett. Chicago and Its Suburbs, Illustrated. Chicago: T.A. Hungerford & Co., 1874.

Chatfield-Taylor, Hobart, Chicago. Boston/New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1917.

Chicago Board of Public Works. Annual Reports of the Board of Public Works to the Common Council of the Cty of Chicago, 1862-1869.

Chiniquy, Charles. Fifty Years in the Church of Rome. New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1886.

Clevenger, Shobal Vail. Fun in a Doctor’s Life, Being the Adventures of an American Don Quixote in Helping to Make the World Better, and How the Problem was Solved for Him by Others, in England, France and Germany, Also an Endeavor to Convert What is Usually Stupid, Egotistical and Uninteresting in an Autobiography, into Many Short, Readable Stories and Essays. Didactic Only Through Entertaining. Atlantic City, NJ: Evolution Publishing Co., 1909.

Cleaveland, N. Green-Wood: A Directory for Visitors. New York: Pudney & Russell, 1857.

Colbert, Elias, and Everett Chamberlin. Chicago and the Great Conflagration. Cincinnati/New York, 1871.

Cook, Frederick Francis. Bygone Days in Chicago. Chicago: A.C. McClurg, 1910.

Currey, J. Seymour. Chicago: Its History and Its Builders, a Century of Marvelous Growth. Chicago: S.J. Clark, 1912.

Dearborn, Nathaniel. A Concise History of, and Guide Through Mount Auburn. Boston: Nathaniel Dearborn, 1843.

Danzer, Gerald A. Chicago’s Historic Maps: Resources for Understanding the City. Springfield, IL: Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, 2007.

Davis, N.S., ed., The Chicago Medical Examiner, Volume V. Chicago: George H. Fergus, 1864.

Devens, R.M. Our First Century: Being a Popular Descriptive Portraiture of the One Hundred Great and Memorable Events of Perpetual Interest in the History of Our Country, Political, Military, Mechanical, Social, Scientific, and Commercial: Embracing Also Delineations of all the Great Historic Characters Celebrated in the Annals of the Republic; Men of Heroism, Statesmanship, Genius, Oratory, Adventure and Philanthropy. Springfield, Mass: Nichols & Co., Toledo, Ohio: A.W. Mills, 1876.

Einhorn, Robin L. Before the Machine: Municipal Government in Chicago, 1833-1872. PhD dissertation. University of Chicago, 1988.

Farrell, James J. Inventing the American Way of Death, 1830-1920. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980.

Ferry, Abby Farwell. Reminiscences of John V. Farwell, by his Elder Daughter. Chicago: Ralph Fletcher Seymour, 1928.

Flagg, Wilson. Mount Auburn: Its Scenes, Its Beauties, and Its Lessons. Boston and Cambridge: James Munroe & Co., 1861.

Freeman, A.C. compiler, The American Decisions Containing the Cases of General Value and Authority Decided in the Courts of the Several States from the Earliest Issue of the State Reports to the Year 1869. San Francisco: Bancroft-Whitney, 1887

Gale, Edwin Oscar. Reminiscences of Early Chicago and Vicinity. Chicago: Revell, 1902.

Gary, Joseph E. compiler. Laws and Ordinances Governing the City of Chicago, January 1, 1866. Chicago: E.B. Myers & Chandler, 1866.

Garraghan, G.J. The Catholic Church in Chicago, 1673-1871. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1921.

General Directory and Business Advertiser of the City of Chicago for the Year 1844
. Chicago: J.W. Norris, 1844.

Gilbert, Paul and Bryson, Charles Lee, Chicago and Its Makers: A Narrative of Events from the Days of the First White Man to the Inception of the Second World’s Fair. Chicago: Felix Mendelsohn, Publisher, 1929.

Goodsell, J.H. and C.M. History of the Great Chicago Fire, October 8, 9, and 10, 1871. Chicago: J.H. and C.M. Goodsell, 1871.

Goodspeed, J.W. and Goodspeed, H.S. The great fires in Chicago and the west. History and incidents, losses and sufferings, benevolence of the nations, &c., &c. By a Chicago clergyman. To which is appended a record of the great conflagrations of the past. Illustrated with map and scenes. Chicago: J.W. Goodspeed, 1871.

Graham, Jory. Chicago: An Extraordinary Guide. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1968.

Habenstein, Robert W. The American Funeral Director: A Study in the Sociology of Work. Phd dissertaion. University of Chicago, 1954.

Habenstein, Robert W., and William M. Lamers. The History of American Funeral Directing. New York: Omnigraphics Inc. 1990.

Hall, E.H., compiler. 1855-6. The Chicago City Directory, and Business Advertiser. Fourth Annual Edition. Chicago: Robert Fergus, 1855.

Halper, Albert. This is Chicago, An Anthology. New York: Holt, 1952.

Hamilton, Henry Raymond. The Epic of Chicago. Chicago/New York: Willett,Clark & Company, 1932.

Higley, William Kerr. Historical Sketch of the Academy. Chicago: Stromberg, Allen & Co., 1902.

Holland, Robert A. Chicago in Maps: 1612-2002. New York: Rizzoli, 2005.

Hoyt, Homer. One Hundred Years of Land Values in Chicago. PhD dissertation. University of Chicago, 1933.

Hulst, Cornelia Steketee. Indian Sketches, Pere Marquette and the Last of the Pottawatomie Chiefs. New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1912.

Hurlbut, Henry H. Chicago Antiquities. Chicago: Henry H. Hurlbut, 1881.

Jackson, Kenneth T. Silent Cities: The Evolution of the American Cemetery. New York: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Jensen, George Peter. Historic Chicago Sites. Chicago: Creative Enterprises, 1953.

Jones, Barbara. Design for Death. Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill Com, 1967.

Kelke, W. Hastings. The Churchyard Manual, Intended Chiefly for Rural Districts. London: C. Cox, 1851.

Kirkland, Caroline, Ed. Chicago Yesterdays. Chicago: Daughaday and Company, 1919.

The Lakeside Classics. Reminiscences of Early Chicago, with an Introduction by Mabel McIlvaine. Chicago: Lakeside Press, 1912.

The Lakeside Classics. Reminiscences of Chicago During the Civil War, with an introduction by Mabel McIlvaine, Chicago: Lakeside Press, 1914.

The Lakeside Classics. Reminiscences of Chicago During the Great Fire, with an introduction by Mabel McIlvaine, Chicago: Lakeside Press, 1915.

The Lakeside Memorial of The Burning of Chicago, The University Publishing Company, Chicago: 1872

Lanctot, Barbara. A Walk Through Graceland Cemetery. Chicago: Chicago Architecture Foundation, 1977.

Levy, George. To Die in Chicago, Confederate Prisoners at Camp Douglass 1862-65. Gretna, Louisiana: Pelican, 1999.

Lincoln Park Commissioners. Annual Report(s) of The Commissioners of Lincoln Park, 1869-1890.

Lincoln Park Commissioners. Proceedings of the Meetings of the Board of Commissioners of Lincoln Park, 1869-1916.

Loesch, Frank J. “Personal Experiences During the Chicago Fire.” A paper read before the Chicago Literary Club, October 12, 1925

Longstreet, Stephen. Chicago, 1860-1919. New York: McKay, 1973.

Lossing, Benson J. Pictorial Fieldbook of the Revolution. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851.

Loudon, J.C. On the Laying Out, Planting, and Managing of Cemeteries; and on the Improvement of Churchyards. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1843.

Luzerne, Frank. Through The Flames and Beyond: or Chicago as it was and as it is. New York: Wells and company, 1872.

Manford, Erasmus. Twenty-Five Years in The West. Chicago: Mrs. H.B. Manford, 1885.

Masters, Edgar Lee. The Great Valley. New York: Macmillan, 1916.

McGovern, James. The Life and Wrtitings of the Right Reverend John McMullan, D.D. Chicago: Hoffman Brothers, 1888.

Milner, George. Cemetery Burial; or Sepulture, Ancient and Modern. London: Joseph Masters, 1847.

Moses, John and Kirkland, Joseph. History of Chicago, Illinois. Chicago and New York: Munsell & Co., 1895.

Official Automobile Blue Book 1917, Volume C. Chicago: The Automobile Blue Book Pub. Co., 1917.

Olson, Ernst W., et al. History of the Swedes of Illinois, Part 1. Chicago: The Engberg-Holmberg Publishing Company, 1908.

Overton, Albert G. David Kennison and the Chicago Sting. manuscript, Chicago History Museum Research Center, 1973.

Pattison, William D. Land for the Dead of Chicago. M.A. Thesis, University of Chicago, 1952.

Pattison, William D. “The Cemeteries of Chicago: A Phase of Land Utilization” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 45, No. 3. September 1955.

Pease, Theodore Calvin. The Centennial History of Illinois, Volume Two: The Frontier State, 1818-1848, Chicago: A.C. McClurge & Co., 1919.

Perkins, Dwight Heald. compiler. Report of the Special Park Commission to the City Council of Chicago on the Subject of a Metropolitan Park System. Chicago: W.J. Hartman, 1905.

Peters, Richard, Ed., The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America, from the Organization of the Government in 1789, to March 3, 1845. Boston: Charles C. Little & James Brown, 1848.

Pierce, Bessie Louise, History of Chicago, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 3 Volumes – 1937, 1940 & 1957.

Praus, Alexis A. Confederate Solders, Sailors, and Civilians Who Died as Prisoners of War at Camp Douglas, Chicago, Ill., 1862-1865. Kalamazoo, Michigan: E. Gray Publications, 1968.

Quaife, Milo Milton. Chicago and the Old Northwest, 1673-1835. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1913.

Quigley, Christine. The Corpse: a History. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1996.

Randall, Frank A., rev. and expanded by John D. Randall. History of the development of building construction in Chicago. Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois, 1999.

Rauch, John H., Intramural Interments in Populous Cities and their Influence upon Health and Epidemics. Chicago: Tribune Company, 1866.

Rauch, John H., Public Parks: Their Effects upon the Moral, Physical and Sanitary Condition of the Inhabitants of Large Cities; with Special Reference to the City of Chicago. Chicago: S.C. Griggs & Co., 1869.

Shea, John Gilmary. History of the Catholic Church in the United States. New York: John G. Shea, 1892.

Sheahan, James Washington. The Great Conflagration: Chicago: Its Past Present and Future. Chicago: Union Pub. Co., 1871.

Simonds, Ossian Cole. Landscape-Gardening. New York: Macmillan, 1920.

Sisters of Mercy, Life of Mary Monholland, One of the Pioneer Sisters of the Order of Mercy in the West, by a Member of the Order, with Permission. Chicago: J.S. Hyland & Co., 1894.

Sloane, David Charles. The Last Great Necessity: Cemeteries in American History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.

Smith, Carl. Urban Disorder and the Shape of Belief: The Great Chicago Fire, the Haymarket Bomb, and the Model Town of Pullman. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Smith, Henry Justin. Chicago’s Great Century: 1833-1933. Chicago: Consolidated Publishers, Inc., 1933.

Sniderman, Julia, et al. Lincoln Park, National Register of Historic Places Application Form. 1994.

Sparling, Samuel Edwin. Municipal History and Present Organization of the City of Chicago. PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1898.

Stahl, John M. Growing in the West; The Story of a Busy, Quiet Life. London/New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1930.

Stead, William T. If Christ Came To Chicago! Chicago: Laird & Lee, 1894.

Stevens, A.W. editor. “Recollections as a Source of History” Addresses and Papers by Edward L. Pierce. Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1896.

Szczygiel, Bonj. and Hewitt, Robert. "Nineteenth-Century Medical Landscapes: John H. Rauch, Frederick Law Olmsted, and the Search for Salubrity", 
Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Volume 74, Number 4, Winter 2000, pp. 708-734

Townshend, John. A Catalogue of Some Books Relating to the Disposal of the Bodies and Perpetuating the Memories of the Dead. New York: John Townshend, 1887.

Tuley, Murray F. compiler. Laws and Ordinances Governing the City of Chicago. Chicago: Bulletin Printing Company, 1873.

Wille, Lois. Forever Open, Clear and Free, The Struggle for Chicago’s Lakefront. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1972.

Wright, John Stephen. Chicago: Past, Present, Future. Chicago: Horton & Leonard, 1868.



City of Chicago. Department of Public Works. Bureau of Engineering. East LaSalle Drive Improvement. Existing Topography & Elevations, Soil Boring Locations. 1975. Chicago Park District Engineering Vault.

Maps of Lincoln Park, Showing Improvements, 1869, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906-7, 1908, 1909, 1910. Chicago Park District Special Collections.

Map(s) of Lincoln Park Showing Location of Sewer and Water Systems. 1930. Chicago Park District Engineering Vault.

Map of Lincoln Park Showing Location of Underground Electrical Systems. 1977. Chicago Park District Engineering Vault.

Nelson, Swain, Landscape Gardener, Plan of Lincoln Park, Chicago. 1865. Chicago History Museum.

Nelson, Swain and Benson, Olaf. Plan of Lincoln Park, Designed by Nelson & Benson, Landscape Gardeners, Published with Peltzer’s Atlas of Chicago. 1873. Illinois Regional Archives Depository, Northeastern Illinois University.

Sanborn Map Co. Insurance Maps of Chicago, Illinois. 1906, 1927, 1935

For thirty additional maps, with their documentation, go here.



Chicago Daily News Photographs from the Chicago History Museum collection

City of Chicago Graphic Information Systems – Division of Maps and Plats On-line Kiosk

Encyclopedia of Chicago – Online Version

Federal Township Plats of Illinois (1804-1891)

Google Book Search

Google Maps and Google Earth

Historic Architectural/Archaeological Resources (HAARGIS) Geographic Information System

Illinois Regional Archives Depository (IRAD)



Library of Congress Map Collections

Project Muse: Scholarly Journals Online


University of Chicago Map Collection


Pamela Bannos © 2021